Fascinating Captain

Tech Guides and Buying Advice


Dual boot Chrome OS and Linux

Get the best of both worlds with Chrome OS and Linux

In my original guide many of you have asked how to dual boot Chrome OS and Linux on your Chromebooks. I’ve come up with this how to along with the video guide to make the whole process easier to understand and follow.

John has provided some great resources on his site along with the modified BIOS needed to make installing Linux on a Chromebook possible. For dual booting on a Chromebook you should use the RW_LEGACY BIOS mod. You may find my post about the difference between BOOT_STUB and RW_LEGACY useful as well.

Update: Please use Mr Chromebox’s BIOS mod instead of John’s. It is based on John’s work but includes more options and features. You will find it here with ample explanation about how to use it. In short, the process is very similar to John’s script.

With only a 16GB internal drive on the Chromebook, it’s not worth partitioning it for the Linux install and so I’m using a USB 3.0 drive instead. This means I’ll leave the Chrome OS install on the internal drive and install Linux on a always plugged in USB 3.0 thumb drive.

USB 3.0 drives provide fast read/write speeds and a compact one like the SanDisk 128GB Ultra Fit is the one I chose. It’s a good solution because it doesn’t stick out of the side of the Chromebook too much and costs only around $30.

Lastly, the great thing about this method (RW_LEGACY) is that you DON’T have to open your Chromebook up meaning you aren’t invalidating your warranty and you can’t brick your Chromebook.

It’s a good idea to have your mains power plugged in to avoid any low battery issues.

What you’ll need:


Step 1. Enable Developer mode

Developer mode will wipe your Chromebook back to factory settings so make sure you back up any data not on your Google drive.

  • With your Chromebook turned off hold down the ESC and Refresh While keeping them held down, press the power button once.
  • Press Ctrl + D to bypass this screen.

yellow exclamation screen

  • Press Enter at the next screen.
  • On the next screen press Ctrl + D to bypass this message.

red exclamation screen

  • You will see a timer counting down in the top right hand corner of the screen. The Chromebook will reboot and you’ll see the screen with the red exclamation mark.
  • Developer mode is now enabled, power off the Chromebook.

Step 2. Modify the Chromebooks BIOS

By enabling developer mode, your Chromebook will always display the screen with the red exclamation mark on startup. Let’s now modify the BIOS to allow us to install Linux.

  • Turn the Chromebook on and press Ctrl + D to bypass the screen with the red exclamation mark.
  • Your Chromebook is reset to factory settings so you will need to go through the Chrome OS setup again.
  • Once complete, open a new Chrome tab and go to John’s website, at the bottom of the post (before the comments section) copy the commands.
  • Press Ctrl + Alt + T to bring up a terminal window tab.
  • Type shell and press Enter.
  • Paste the commands into the terminal and press Enter.
  • Choose the option to Modify my Chromebook’s RW_LEGACY slot and follow the on-screen instructions.

Step 3. Enable USB boot

Pressing Ctrl + D at the screen with the red exclamation mark on startup will take you to your Chrome OS install but pressing Ctrl + L will take you to the BIOS screen to boot from your USB drive. Let’s turn on the Ctrl + L functionality next:

  • Press Ctrl + D at the initial startup screen to load Chrome OS.
  • Press Ctrl + Alt + F2 at the Chrome OS login screen.
  • Login using the password chronos
  • At the terminal prompt, type sudo crossystem dev_boot_usb=1 dev_boot_legacy=1
  • Power off the Chromebook by typing in sudo poweroff
  • Now on startup, if you press Ctrl + L, you will get the BIOS screen instead of Chrome OS.

Step 4. Install Linux

At this stage most of the work is done and all that’s left is to install Linux:

  • Plug in your USB 3.0 drive into the USB 3.0 port of your Chromebook.
  • Plug in your live Linux USB into the other USB port.
  • Power on the Chromebook and press Ctrl + L to get to the BIOS screen.
  • Press ESC when prompted and you will see 3 drives: the USB 3.0 drive, the live Linux USB drive (I am using Ubuntu) and the eMMC (the Chromebooks internal drive). Choose the live Linux USB drive.

SeaBIOS boot options

  • Choose the option Try Ubuntu without installing. When Linux loads make sure you can connect to the internet (I am using my trusty USB to Ethernet hub combo for a wired connection).
  • Click on the Install Ubuntu 16.04 LTS icon and follow the on screen prompts until you get to Installation type.
  • We want to leave the Chromebook’s internal drive untouched so choose the option to do something else so that we can manually setup the partitions for Ubuntu.
  • Ignore all the mmc partitions and look for your USB drive, if you’re not sure, look at the size of the drive.
  • Setup a 4GB (4000 MB) swap partition and set the rest of the space as the root partition.

ubuntu partitions

  • DON’T FORGET to change the boot disk to your USB drive as well.
  • Check your partitions are correct and continue the install. 
  • The rest of the install is a standard install so just follow the on screen prompts.
  • Once finished, reboot, remove the live Linux USB and press Ctrl + L
  • You now have Linux installed. Run the software updates to make sure you have the latest firmware, drivers and software.

Step 5. Fix any problems

For most Chromebooks things will work just fine but there may be some tweaks you need to perform.

To make this easier see my post on automating these fixes so that you can start using your shiny new Linux Chromebook as quickly as possible.


  1. Christopher Carr

    Is there an issue with the live Ubuntu session and Swanky’s built-in WiFi?

    • Captain

      I’ve noticed whether in the live session or full install, the WiFi doesn’t accept the password. In this case, go to edit connections and reenter the WiFi password.
      Also check your date and time is correct.

      • Christopher Carr

        Fortunately, I didn’t experience any unusual issues with WiFi — no ethernet-USB adapter required.

        Got elementary OS 0.4 “Loki” beta dual-booting using the posted method, off my SanDisk UltraFit. Loki is buggy as one would expect, but I suspect Pantheon performs a little better than Unity on Swanky’s hardware.

        • Captain

          Good work, just to clarify for anyone reading, I only use the adapter for a faster internet connection.
          Hhmmm, I read Loki was in beta, I’ll probably do a review once it’s in final release.

  2. Daniel

    I have the newer chromebook 2 and it’s giving my can’t load gfx when i tried to boot please help.

    • Captain

      Hi Daniel,
      If you mean the ‘Graphics initialization failed Error setting up gfxboot’ this is a known problem. As I commented previously:
      Try another USB drive or recreate the live install by using dd.
      sudo dd if=/path_to_ubuntu_.iso of=/dev/sdX
      where you need to change the iso path and sdX to you USB dive (use lsblk to check which one it is).

    • Guest

      Is it ok for using a DVD to boot Ubuntu up? Because it failed the same way like Daniel.

      • Captain

        Hi there, you can use an external DVD if you want to, if you mean the gfx error, the last I heard is, if you type ‘live’ when you get the error, the install should continue.

        • Guest

          Do you type “live” when it says “boot:”?

        • Guest

          It always says “Could not allocate memory” when I use the word “live”

          • Captain

            I have not had the GFX issue myself, but from feedback from others, the 3 things to try when you get the error is to:
            -Try the TAB key
            -Type ‘help’ and press enter
            -Type ‘live’ and pres enter
            Failing that install an older version of version of Ubuntu and then do an upgrade from there.

          • Guest

            None of them work. I searched up every problem I could find for the answer, but all of them don’t work at all.

        • Linux Researcher

          Is the gfxboot error based on the file or the size of the chromebook screen.

          • Captain

            It’s a bug in Ubuntu based distros. Not sure what causes the problem.

  3. Masa Louis

    No sound yet did the fix in step 5 🙁 I have the Swanky Toshiba CB35-B3340. Thanks for the help thus far.

    • Captain

      See my earlier comment to Simon, you probably just need to click on the speaker in the settings.

  4. E.J

    Hey Captain,

    My friend has a hp chrome book 14 with 2gb of Ram (it’s the one that is aqua blue I think). Elementary OS Freya was too buggy for her chromebook, whether it was the 32 or 64bit. Right now I’m thinking about installing Ubuntu Mate or Linux mint (Cinnamon or Mate?) . She’s new to Linux. Which one should I choose in your opinion? Are there other options you can recommend if necessary?

    Thank you!

    • Captain

      Hi E.J,
      With 2GB RAM it’s best to go with a lightweight distro. I’m actually working on a new video where I’ll be comparing 5 lightweight distros so keep an eye out! So far I’m really impressed with lubuntu for ease of use and performance. Cinnamon looks nice but might be a bit laggy on the HP.

  5. Masa Louis

    Hi Captain,
    I am having troubles with the wifi, completed all the steps and everything was fine until a few days ago. First I noticed that the wifi doesn’t connect when the wakes up after sleeping (forcing me to restart all the time.) Now the wifi doesn’t work at all. I have the 2015 swanky. Let me know if you could shed any light on this issue.

    • Captain

      Hi Masa,
      Check the date and time are correct on your Chromebook.
      For Ubuntu 16.04 (and variants) in network settings, check the password is filled in.

      • Masa Louis

        Hi Captain,

        Thanks for the help. Saving the password in the settings did the trick. Thanks for the Chromebook Ubuntu experience!

  6. Fred

    Hi Captain,

    Thanks for the great tutorial! Just got my toshiba chromebook (broadwell) setup with Linux with the RW_LEGACY firmware. I have no use for Chrome OS and replaced the eMMC already. Is it possible to bypass the white screen without pressing Ctrl+L?

    • Captain

      Hi Fred,
      Good job! John doesn’t offer BOOT_STUB modifications for newish Chromebooks (which is what you need to remove the white screen) but Mr Chromebox https://mrchromebox.tech/ does.

      You will need to disable write protect and so there is the possibility of bricking your device, so make sure, you’re careful…

  7. Roger Peniston-Bird

    I think I successfully removed the write protect pad,and did not replace the screw. But how do I check whether I was successful or not, before proceeding further?

    Roger in Vienna

    • Captain

      Hi Roger,
      If you removed the sticker and screw, your BIOS will be writable. Try running John’s script and it should work.

  8. Masa Louis

    Hey Captain,

    I love my new OS, but I notice on my Swanky that the application tab window (usually what you get when you press alt+tab) seems to pop up for no reason when I am just using the mouse pad. Do you now of this glitch?


    • Captain

      Hi Masa,
      It’s probably a setting somewhere which allows you to 2 finger scroll through your apps but without knowing your setup, it’s difficult to say.

      • Masa Louis

        Hey Captain,

        I played around further, and it seems like for some reason my Swanky’s settings are 3 finger tap is the same as alt+tab, and four fingers tap is the dashboard. Never really messed with the settings, and just installed only a few basic apps. Thoughts?


  9. Holland McPeake

    Hi Captain,
    Trouble in Dual Boot Land. I get down to “Select boot device” where I select my usb drive. I immediately get “graphics initialization failed, Error setting up gfx boot.” I tried rewriting the USB stick, redown loading ubumtu, using a second usb stick, and writing in dd image mode. All resulting in the above error.

    Help is appreciated !!

    • Captain

      Hi Holland,

      The gfx boot problem is listed as a unresolved bug and the problem has been around for ages! I normally recommend using John’s script to do the BIOS mod but Matt (MrChromebox) has been active in this area as well and you’ll see his many contributions on John’s Google+ community.

      Anyway the point of all this is that Matt has recently put up his new site which also includes BIOS mods for Chromebooks and I believe using his BIOS will eliminate the gfx boot problem.

      Go to https://mrchromebox.tech and choose the Firmware Utility Script link. The script runs in the same way as John’s script and for dual booting make sure you choose the RW_LEGACY option. After that the other steps from my post will be the same.

      Like John, Matt accepts donations to show appreciation for their work so if you’re able to consider donating.

      Anyway, let me know how you get on…

      • Holland McPeake

        Thank you very much for the prompt answer. I think this is getting too much for my non Linux brain and am afraid I’ll mess things up where I can’t get back. I know that when I power on and don’t do the Control L after a minute or so it boots into Chrome. Can you tell me how to get back to plain old Chrome OS when I power up?

  10. Masa Louis

    Hey Captain thanks for the advice earlier.

    I know you already did a lot, but have you had any thoughts on installing Mint on chromebooks with 4gb ram like the Swanky?


    • Captain

      I’m working on another video at the moment but will be making a Mint install video, it’s a great distribution and I know people really like it.

      • Masa Louis

        Wonderful, thanks Captain, looking forward to it!

  11. Bruno Beloff

    Thanks for this. It works great! I now have a dual-boot Toshiba Chromebook 2 – just what I wanted 🙂 I use an SD card for the Ubuntu install.

    One bugbear – on startup, when I CTRL-L to Sea BIOS and Esc to the menu, I get the following drives:

    1. MMC drive (I’m assuming this is the Chromebook’s SSD)
    2. SD card (my Ubuntu)

    How do I change the order, or remove the MMC? The MMC is not relevant at this point, and in any case Sea BIOS cannot boot to ChromeOS – so the option is pointless. Worse, if you leave Sea BIOS to boot unattended, it will attempt to boo to the MMC, and the system will hang.

    I know Sea BIOS is not your product, but you might have some thoughts?

    • Captain

      Hi Bruno,

      That’s great that you’re dual booting now!

      The mmc is the internal drive and unfortunately there’s no way I know of to change the boot order if you’re using a SD drive. USB drives on the other hand do boot first.

  12. Daniel Bray

    Thank you very much for your guide! I was not able to find a workaround for the ‘gfx’ error I received when installing Ubuntu 16, so I went with Ubuntu 14 instead. I tried the fix from mrchromebox.tech as well and it did not work for me. I purchased the USB Flash Drive you recommended and everything installed perfectly.

    My question is regarding the partitioning of the USB Flash Drive. You write in step 4: “Setup a 4GB (4000 MB) swap partition and set the rest of the space as the root partition.” I found this Q/A on askubuntu to be helpful for steps in doing this: http://askubuntu.com/questions/343268/how-to-use-manual-partitioning-during-installation. He recommends a ‘swap’ partition, a ‘/’ (root) partition, and a ‘/home’ partition. Do I need the third partition (‘/home’), or should I put all the remaining space as my ‘/ (root fs)’ partition?

    • Captain

      Hi Daniel,

      Cool you got everything working.

      As far as the partitioning, when you set the root partition, Linux creates the home folder on the same partition for you. Unless you have a particular requirement for a separate home partition let Linux do it for you.

      That way you get to use the maximum amount of space available rather than setting an arbitrary amount.

      BTW, I’ll be making a video of installing Linux Mint with a separate home drive soon, so stay tuned!

      • Daniel Bray

        Is there a way to change my partitions if I have already set it up with 4gb swap, 20gb root and 100gb home? Or do I need to wipe everything and do a clean install?

        I’m looking forward to the video about Mint.

        • Captain

          I think you’ll be better off doing a clean install.

  13. Ron

    Hi Captain,

    If I want to install Ubuntu on the same (upgraded) SSD as ChromeOS, do I have to do anything fancy to get it to boot to Ubunutu on Startup? Your guide just gets it to boot off of the usb drive to go straight to Ubuntu.

    • Captain

      Hi Ron,

      John describes how to do this in his post. It’s not something I’ve tried and there doesn’t seem to be that much interest in doing this since most people who have upagraded their SSD’s really only want to run Linux. If more people request this, I’ll make a video 🙂

      • Ron

        Is there a way to install just Ubuntu using this method without disabling Write Protect? Like would telling Ubuntu to wipe the Chrome OS during install work?

        • Captain

          Yes sure. Instead of using the ‘something else’ option for partitioning, use the default option and choose your SSD for the install. Once installed, Chrome OS will be wiped and using CTRL + L will allow you to boot Ubuntu.

      • Aries Silva

        Captain, your blog has been invaluable and I was able to get my toshiba chromebook dual booting in no time! I love the extra functionality Linux brings. I would LOVE to be able to ditch the USB drive though and just be able to dual boot off my SSD after I upgrade it of course (looking at buying the 256GB one).

        Looking at John’s post, is difficult to ascertain which (if any) of the steps need to be modified for this setup. Can I bribe you with some virtual candy to do the video anyways? 🙂 I know you REALLY want to get your chromebook setup this way too (and free up that precious USB3 port) as well 🙂

        • Captain

          Hi Aries,
          Glad to help. Unfortunately, my hard drive is not replaceable on my Toshiba CB2 so I’m stuck with only 16GB. The guide to dual boot off the internal drive is one I thought about doing but there didn’t seem to be any demand for it. Since you asked so nicely, I’ll see what I can do although I’ve currently got a list of requests and ideas that I want to post about (I did ask!), so please be patient. Virtual candy huh? Bribery and corruption, I never thought I’d see the day…

  14. Caleb

    Hey cap thanks for the tutorial very informative I must say. I was wondering if i should follow this tutorial if I want to install Ubuntu on my MMc and not USB drive. I dont want to dual boot, just use plain Ubuntu. I am using Toshiba Chromebook 2 Swanky.

    • Captain

      Hi Caleb,

      Yeah sure you can do that, see my reply to Ron in these comments.

  15. Michael Webber

    I’ve had serious performance issues with the SanDisk USB 3.0 Fit – it can’t sustain larger file transfers without overheating and throttling down (the first version even corrupted data). The Samsung USB 3.0 MUF-128BB/AM also called “Fit” on the Amazon webpage (but only for search results I suspect). That one can handle 40gb of mass file transfers at high speeds.

    • Captain

      Hi Michael,

      Interesting, I haven’t had any problems with my ultrafit but I do agree it can get hot. Having a look at Amazon reviews there are 2,055 for the Sandisk Ultrafit I used in this post and only 656 for the Samsung one you are using. For both, reviewers have said that they get hot, so based on the numbers and my own experience I would still recommend the Sandisk Ultrafit.

      I really appreciate you taking the time to let me know your experience and I’m sure it will help others as well (in fact the Ultrafit was recommended to me by another person in another post comment!).

      For others reading this, here’s the links to the drives:

      Sandisk UltraFit from this post
      Samsung 128GB USB 3.0 Flash Drive Fit

  16. Ron

    Just got everything working after some struggles, thought I would post some issues/solutions I ran into here. First, it seems that ChromeOS can’t recover off a SanDisk brand flashdrive, so use a different brand if you have to recover (I did to install a new SSD).

    I was getting the “gfx” error with both John’s and Matt’s BIOS updates, with multiple flashdrives, with multiple Ubuntu versions, with/without dd writes. I probably ended up making over a dozen Live Linux USB versions.

    What ended up working was making a Live USB from a non-dd Ubuntu 14.04 32 bit iso. This still gave me the gfx error, but after that error I pressed Tab to get more options, then did “live” to get onto a live desktop of Ubuntu. From there I fully installed Ubuntu 14, and after that I upgraded to 16.

    Hopefully this post helps someone down the line, it was very disheartening to get the gfx error so many times but it did end up working.

    • Captain

      Sometimes the straightforward stuff is harder than the hard stuff. Thanks for posting this workaround for the gfx error. Out of interest, what model of Chromebook are you using?

      • Ron

        Toshiba Chromebook 2015 (with the i3)

        • Captain

          Hhhm, I was expecting a different model, it’s probably the i3 integrated graphics. Just for others reading this, pressing help and then Enter will boot into live Ubuntu on older versions of Ubuntu.

          It’s a known bug but looks like the Ubuntu team have decided to give it a low priority.

          Using Ron’s workaround of installing an older version and upgrading seems to be the way to go.

          • Brad Woosley

            I can confirm the i3 error, I’m running a Dell 13 with the i3 and get the gfx error, which is annoying because I installed a 256mb hard drive and wanted to install to it. Right now I’m just running off a install on a USB 3 I did for my toshiba, works fine but whats the point of having a hard drive and not using it? Thanks for the update Ron I’ll be doing that install very soon.

    • Anne

      Hi there:
      I have the same gfx errors as some of the other folks here. i’ve tried Matt’s BIOS mods but am having the same issue. I have a 16 GB SanDisk UltraFit USB 3.0 Flash Drive (vs 128 GB). Is there a minimum requirement on the size of the Flash Drive for this to all work ? If so, is it likely that the size of my Flash Drive is the root of the gfx errors?

      • Captain

        Hi Anne,

        The gfx is related to the graphics and not the amount of disk space. You can get around this by using chrx to install Linux. See chrx where you’ll find detailed instructions. Pay close attention to the -t TARGETDISK option as you’ll want to point the installation to your USB drive.

        On the other hand the gfx error only affects debian based distro as far as I’m aware so you could try Fedora or OpenSuse.

  17. Brad Woosley

    Hey this is a great tutorial, I’m running 16.04 on my Toshiba Chromebook 2 via USB 3 and an external SSD drive (it’s what I had on hand) and it works pretty damn well. I wouldn’t say it was Snappy but it doesn’t lag really. I installed Minecraft to play with my daughter and if you dial down the graphics it runs pretty well even in multiplayer. She plays on my Macbook so it doesn’t effect her and I don’t really care about the graphics all that much. Other than that it’s a little clunky using an external drive vs. a USB stick no issues here. I am thinking about picking up a stick now that I know it works, but 128 is a little slim for me so any recommendations on a 256GB or larger

    • Captain

      Hi Brad,

      Glad to hear you’re getting so much mileage from your Chromebook!

      There are larger size thumb drives out there but prices go a bit crazy over 128GB and insane for 512GB drives. If I were in the market for a 256GB thumb drive, I would be looking for a compact size, USB 3.0 and reasonable price. This would be my shortlist:

      Silicon Power 256GB Swivel (great read/write speeds)
      PNY Turbo 256GB (over 8000 reviews)
      256GB PNY Pro Elite (more expensive but has the best read/write speeds)

      • Brad

        Thanks sir, I did decide to just get the 128 Sure fit for now and I noticed a marked improvement immediately. I also found a 4GB Toshiba model for $100 and upgraded to that one, flashed the BIOS stuck my USB in and was up and running no problems, Bluetooth even works to stream to my speakers at the pool, the one thing I’ve noticed is that you have to go back into the sound settings and reselect the internal speakers or you won’t have sound after disconnecting.

        The only thing that doesn’t work correctly is my external DVD player it’s a Toshiba and I thought it would work out of the box, it runs in VLC but I haven’t figured out how to select buttons in it yet, the built in video player doesn’t work at all with a DVD, is there another program I can try or am I just too much of a noob to know how to work it?

        • Captain

          $100 for a Chromebook is a great deal!

          For the DVD, I think it’s probably the codecs or the way the DVD is encrypted that restricts playback. Try running this command in a terminal window:
          sudo apt-get install libdvd-pkg
          Also make sure you have all codecs by running:
          sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras

          In VLC player go to ‘open DVD’ in the file menu.

          • Brad Woosley

            Well I’ve tried everything to get the DVD to work correctly but some DVD’s just won’t play, I’ve installed all the CSS libs as well. It’s not that big of a deal, I don’t really want to carry around the DVD player it was just an exercise to see if I could get it to work. I’m going to rip my DVD’s with Handbrake on my Macbook and then put them on my SD card and stick it in my Ubuntu so I can just watch from the SD card.

            I have been messing around with just how much I can get out of my 4GB Toshiba and frankly I’m surprised. For causal gamers who don’t need massive graphics this machine can do a lot. Here’s what I’ve managed to get running.

            Minecraft – Runs smoothly once you tone down the graphics a little, works well even in a hosted multiplayer, I play with my 8 year old daughter all the time and she likes to use my little Ubuntu instead of the Macbook just because of the lighter foot print. It does have a few hiccups but re markedly few considering the fact that not only are you running the game but hosting it on the local network.

            Steam – I have steam running, I didn’t think it was possible on this little machine but it runs fine and a couple of the games I have for the Macbook downloaded and installed no problems at all.

            Darkest Dungeon (steam) – I thought there was no chance this game would run on the Ubuntu Chromebook, it’s not particulary graphics intensive, I believe it’s all static handpainted but still not only does it run, it runs as well on my Ubuntu as my Macbook, no it runs but you have to be patient or it has work arounds it just flat out runs. The only hiccups it has is the video sequences occasionally hiccup but that’s not actually gameplay, the gameplay is smooth as butter.

            Xonotic – This is an FPS based on the Doom/Quake/Unreal engine I believe, did not think that this would run at all but it runs fast with no frame rate lags in full screen. I haven’t tried a local game or on the 2GB model (I have one just haven’t tried it) but in the online mode it works seamlessly. Very surprising.

            Battery life is nowhere as good as Chromebook but I expected that, casual browsing email etc you get about 4 hours vs. 5-6 on Chrome and when you are playing Minecraft about 3 hours, but that is still good considering you are running a full OS on a tiny little machine like this.

            Overall I’m shocked at what you can do with a machine that cost me $100 and another $28 for the USB stick.

            I’ve messed around with Linux quite a bit in the past and it was always so problematic to get anything to work correctly that it just wasn’t worth it. This release is super stable, fairly easy to get things working and if you’re patient and can follow instructions there are tons of pages on the webs to guide you on installing programs that don’t work out of the box. I am having a little trouble getting Photon to work for a program I want like Omni Writer but I have Focus installed and working so it’s me wanting to see how far I can get things.

          • Captain

            Well someone’s been busy!! Great detail in your comment Brad, I’m sure this will help/encourage others to give Linux a go. As for the Toshiba Chromebook, it really is a gem of a machine.

          • Brad Woosley

            Oh also have Spotify running and hooked up to my bluetooth speakers at the pool

  18. Matthew

    Thanks for the instructions.

    My concern with using a USB is the limit of write cycles. Have you run into any issue with data loss or slow writing with the recommended USB? About how many hours have you, in total, run Linux on your Toshiba using THIS method? Sorry if this is paranoia. Thanks again.

    • Captain

      Hi Matthew,

      Or should I say paranoid Matt 🙂
      At a guess I would say about 70 – 80 hours of using this flash drive on Linux.

      As an example, I remember quite a few years ago I was learning about vmware virtualisation and I built a home server with the OS installed on a USB 2.0 drive. That server ran 24/7 for about 1 year and I still use that USB drive to this day.

      Flash drives are capable of many more reads than writes but good quality drives should last. With USB 3.0, speeds aren’t that much of an issue but are dependant on the port, the quality of the drive and the drivers. Linux is pretty good with USB 3.0 drivers.

      Lastly, whether you’re using a USB drive, SSD or any other drive, back your stuff up regularly and should something go wrong, the pain will be bearable.

      • Matthew

        Ok, thanks for the reply. I think that I’ll give it a try. I do have one more query, though:

        Is the linux system in the live install (as opposed to the bootable usb) able to view or access chromeos on the hard drive?

        Thanks again.

        • Captain

          Although the Chrome OS partitions (there’s quite a few of them) are visible in Linux, they are not accessible…

  19. Ric

    Hey Captain!

    First off, thanks so much for this writing guide and for your keyboard/sound fixes! I just bought a refurbished Swanky and decided to install Ubuntu on the SanDisk drive you recommended, and everything is running great so far. I have very little experience with Linux, and your guide made it incredibly easy.

    Anyway, I’ve been using a Chromebook for a few years, so I’ve gotten used to the keyboard limitations and shortcuts in ChromeOS. Now that the dust has settled and I’m using Ubuntu on a daily basis, I’m starting to notice some things that I want to adjust. I already figured out how to remove your Shift key shortcuts for Home/End/Pgup/Pgdn (I use Shift regularly to select and edit text, and don’t need the other buttons as often). The other big thing that I miss is being able to use Alt+Backspace as my Delete key. Would you happen to know how I could set this up? Would I use the Keyboard Shortcuts screen in Settings? (I played around there but didn’t spend much time in it because it looked like it was used for application shortcuts.)

    Thanks again!


    • Captain

      Hi Ric,

      Part of my intention for these guides is to introduce Linux to new people in a simple way. It’s been very encouraging how many people are at least giving Linux a go. So well done on installing Ubuntu on your Chromebook!

      I haven’t worked out how to assign CRTL and ALT combo shortcuts but if you’re happy with SHIFT + Backspace as your delete key, do the following in a terminal window:

      sudo gedit /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/pc

      On the line near the top of the file (about the 10th line) you’ll see the BKSP definition as Backspace, Backspace. Change that to Backsace, Delete. Save the file and run the following command:

      sudo rm -rf /var/lib/xkb/*

      After a reboot, SHIFT + Backspace will work as the delete key.

      • Ric

        Perfect! I’ll just have to remember to adjust when I’m not in ChromeOS. Thank you so much!

  20. Jens Verwimp

    Hey Cap! The link to John Lewis his site ain’t working for me or my friends. Any chance of giving us the commands?

    • Captain

      I think he’s doing an upgrade today so the site might be down. The commands actually download the modified BIOS so you’ll need to wait for site to come back up I’m afraid.

      • Jens Verwimp

        Aha! Fair enough! Thanks for the reply and I’ll just check back tomorrow! 🙂

      • Jens Verwimp

        Also one more question, I don’t need to open up the back from my Toshiba to get rid of the sticker right?

  21. Nicholas

    Will this make my battery run out quicker when I’m only using chrome so? Because I really want to do this but still use chrome os for school. And will there be any preformence issues in just chrome os? Thanks for the tutorial, really great job!

    • Captain

      Hi Nicholas,

      Thanks, nice to hear you liked the guide.

      Battery life is less in Linux since it’s a fully featured OS compared to Chrome OS. I would say knock 1 or 2 hours off the ones quoted by the manufacturers under Linux.
      You can compare battery life for Chromebooks I recommend

      As far as Chrome OS it will work exactly the same as before in this dual boot setup.

  22. larryz02

    Hey Capitan

    I install link on my Acer CB3-531-C4A5 and install your script for the fixes. But I have just one problem, the volume isn’t working I believe everything else works except the volume. Can you help me.


    • Captain

      Hi Larry,

      Do you mean the sound doesn’t work or that the volume keys don’t work?

  23. larryz02

    The sound itself, when I check the volume setting it shows that it’s making sound but it’s not coming out of the speakers.

    • Captain

      Ok. Firstly, check the speakers (and not HDMI) are default in sound settings in your Linux distro. If that doesn’t work, I have modified my script to include your model of Chromebook. Please run these commands in a terminal window again and reboot:
      cd ~/Downloads; sudo apt-get -y install curl; curl -LOk https://github.com/fascinatingcaptain/CBFixesAndTweaks/archive/test.tar.gz; tar -zxvf test.tar.gz; cd CBFixesAndTweaks-test; sudo -E bash CBFixesAndTweaks.sh

      You may need to check the speakers are default again. Let me know which solution works and I will make the change to my script permanent so it helps others as well.

  24. Zach

    Hey, I was trying to dualboot Chrome OS with Elementary OS freya, but i installed it on an SD card, and now I can’t get seabios to boot from it. just wondering what i did wrong…

    • Captain

      Hi Zach,

      I’ve found that an SD card is fine for storage but not for installing on because read/write speeds are just not good enough. At a guess I would assume that either elementary OS hasn’t installed correctly on the card or the card is not being recongnised by the Chromebook (maybe it’s an unbranded card?).

  25. Lewis De Payne

    Captain – Thank you for the tutorial. I have an Asus Chromebook (C300MA). Are there mods I can make which will allow it to DEFAULT boot off a USB drive (with GalliumOS installed), if one is present, else boot off the internal ChromeOS – without any extra screen coming up or having to press -D or -L? When my kids are using the chromebook, I don’t want it to be complicated for them – but I want to be running GalliumOS off USB flash when it’s in my hands.

    • Captain

      Hi Lewis,

      Unfortunately, if you want to boot both Chrome OS and Linux you can’t default boot into Linux.
      If when your kids are using it you get them used to not pressing anything when booting up, they don’t need to know about pressing Ctrl D. The Chromebook will simply beep twice after a couple of seconds and boot into Chrome OS.

      • Lewis De Payne

        Hello Captain,

        How about this – I’d like the machine to continue doing what it normally does, which is boot into ChromeOS by default (with no strange prompts coming up on the screen). Then, if I want to use it, I’ll insert a bootable GalliumOS USB stick in it. At that point, it’s fine if I have to do some strange sequence to boot the USB drive. I just don’t want the kids to have to do anything, or to get some strange screen (such as “press enter to restore verification”). Is that currently possible?

        • Captain

          No. The Chromebook BIOS doesn’t function like a normal PC BIOS. The strange screen will remain in your dual boot requirement…

  26. Brad Woosley

    Just an update on my previous post, I’ve managed to find a few other gems and get some things running I would not have thought possible.

    First of all as I said earlier I’ve got steam working no problem at all, it’s a touch slow as far as browsing but not that bad. As an experiment I decided to download and install DOTA2 it’s a 7.5GB download and it’s only 3 years old so I didn’t give it that much of a chance at running. I downloaded it for free via steam and let it do the install. I haven’t actually run the game in Online multiplayer but I ran the tutorial for about 5 minutes and surprisingly it runs fine. I’ll mess around with it tonight for a while, I haven’t had much of a chance this morning. I have a feeling that it might experience some slow down the more thats going on gamewise, but the engine is fairly old so maybe not.

    Also one of the primary reasons I did this dual-boot was so I could have a little writing machine, unfortunately serious writing programs on Ubuntu are pretty limited. You have your choice of word processors including Libre Office and Focus, both good programs but for serious research and compilation it was a bit lacking. Imagine my surprise to find out that Scrivener is both available for Linux and free. It’s no longer supported but the latest version was updated in 2015 and it works fine. I have a license for Scrivener on my Macbook and I’m pretty much overjoyed to have it on my little Ubuntu Ultra now. This is an actual well made piece of novel writing software and free to boot. It runs perfect on my Toshiba with no bugs at all.

    You can get it here: https://www.literatureandlatte.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=33&t=32709&sid=3bde5e6cce266b7140ce8a487163c720

    I’m hoping it’s okay to post a link?

    And install it with gdebi which I have found to be the easiest .deb package installer out there for Ubuntu.

    If you don’t have gdebi get it by doing this:

    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install gdebi

    Then you can use it at the command line or just type gdebi-gtk to open a graphical interface, go to the menu bar and do File>Open> and browse to your .deb file and select it, you type in your password and Bob’s your uncle easiest install you’ll ever do on Ubuntu. I highly recommend it.

    I have to say, usually when you do one of these Linux conversions you are giving up a lot or put up with a lot of work arounds so you can have a “Linux” flavored machine, so far I haven’t had to give up any functionality and I’ve actually gained some things that I just can’t do with my Macbook. The first is portability. I have a 15″ macbook and compared to my Toshiba it feels like a gold brick. Granted it’s an amazing piece of technology and the newer macbooks are probably close to as light as my Toshiba but this little laptop only cost me $128 total sooo . . . yeah. The second is accessibility, this thing is up and running in less than 30 seconds and instantly if I’m already using it. So far it works as a daily driver, now it’s time to really test it out. It has an intel video card in it and we are going to see how it handles low end video editing. Frankly I don’t expect it to do that well but it’s surprised me before and if you can edit video on an Ipad Air then maybe it’s possible on this little machine. We shall see.

    • Captain

      Brad, you are the man! I’m sure your detailed findings will help others at least give Linux a go on their Chromebooks. At the moment the Toshiba is the go to Chromebook for Linux that’s for sure.
      With the gaming, I do think you’ll start seeing some problems with gameplay.
      I haven’t heard of Scrivener but I’ll check it out (I’m on the train to work at the moment).

  27. Vinny Diano

    Hello Captain! I am curious if you think if I purchased a ASUS C201 11.6 Inch Chromebook (Rockchip, 4 GB, 16GB SSD) and tried to install Elementary OS 0.4 -if it would be completely compatible, wifi card and all? I need a little laptop for business work. Mainly just website design and managing multiple social media accounts. I plan to also integrate Dropbox for easy file sharing. Thank you very much for your time and advice. It will really help me and my business move forward.

    • Captain

      Hi Vinny,

      Unfortunately the ASUS C201 Rockchip does not have a BIOS mod and so you won’t be able to install Linux. Check out my post which includes some affordable 11″ Chromebooks that do support Linux. Good luck with your business.

      • Vinny Diano

        Thank you Captain! I just read your affordable Chromebooks article and tried to find options that you posted in my price range but I have come up with a few that are remarkably similar to the ones you wrote down in your list.
        [editied by Captain]

        • Captain

          Hi Vinny,

          I’m moving your comment to the affordable Chromebooks article because I think it will help more readers there.

  28. larryz02

    Hey Captain
    Still no luck I can’t get the sound to work. I think the sound is going to the HDMI port. I hooked my chromebook to my tv through the hdmi port and got sound from the hdmi, but no picture. I did see the default speaker option. In the Audio Volume Setting under the Output Devices tab it say Built-in Audio Digital Stereo (HDMI), under the Configuration tab it say Digital Stereo (HDMI) Output or similar.

    • Captain

      On the built-in Audio Digital Stereo (HDMI) click on it and it should change to the speakers. Also did you run the test script I linked to in my last comment.

  29. larryz02

    Hay Captain
    I Click on the Audio Digital Stereo (HDMI) it didn’t change to speakers, and yes I did run the script that was posted, still no luck.

    • Captain

      Ok, let’s try to do some troubleshooting, please send the results of the following commands:
      sudo dmidecode -s system-product-name
      uname -a
      find asound.state /var/lib/alsa/

  30. larryz02

    Hey Captain

    Here is the results of the commands you ask for

    larryz02@larryz02-Banjo:~$ sudo dmidecode -s system-product-name
    [sudo] password for larryz02:

    larryz02@larryz02-Banjo:~$ uname -a
    Linux larryz02-Banjo 4.4.0-38-generic #57-Ubuntu SMP Tue Sep 6 15:41:41 UTC 2016 i686 i686 i686 GNU/Linux

    larryz02@larryz02-Banjo:~$ find asound.state /var/lib/alsa/
    find: ‘asound.state’: No such file or directory

    • Captain

      From those results I can see my script hasn’t replaced the asound.state file.

      You can do this manually by downloading the modified file, go to https://github.com/fascinatingcaptain/CBFixesAndTweaks and right click on the asound.state file and choose save link as.

      Now run the following commands:
      sudo alsa force-unload
      sudo cp ~/Downloads/asound.state /var/lib/alsa
      Restart and check the speakers are default in the settings.

  31. Francesco

    Awesome post!
    I’m planning to buy an HP Chromebook 13 (Model Name: W0S99UT#ABA)
    Can I follow this post to install Ubuntu on a USB stick? Will it work?
    I’ve read that write protect should be disabled. Is this something we have to do yet? If yes, how can it be done on this HP?

    Thanks so much for your help.

    • Captain

      Hi Francesco,

      Thanks and I have to say the HP Chromebook 13 looks really nice.

      From a quick Google search it looks like this Chromebook already has a legacy BIOS option so you should be able to miss steps 2 and 3 of this post and you also don’t need to remove write protect.

      Plug in your Linux install USB and the USB you want to install on and press CTRL + L to get to the BIOS after enabling developer mode.
      Let me know how you get on…

      • Francesco

        Hi Captain,

        Thanks so much for your quick reply, it’s appreciated. Do you mind to forward the link where did you found that HP Chromebook 13 has a legacy BIOS. I’ve tried to find out but they’re always talking about HP Chromebook 14 instead of 13.

        Thanks so much for your support

  32. Bob

    Hello Captain,

    I followed your great guide on installing Linux on a Toshiba Chromebook 2 (Swanky). However, John’s script does not show option 2 (modify BOOT_STUB). In your dualboot video I can see this option on the same device! How come I can’t use this option? I followed all the steps in your guide. Thanks!!

    • Captain

      Hi Bob,

      For dual booting, you need the RW_LEGACY mod NOT the BOOT_STUB one. The option probably doesn’t show because you have to remove write protect to write to the BIOS, see my original post.

  33. Brad Woosley

    Hey Captain,

    Just wanted to give everyone the lowdown on the new 16.10 Yakkety Yak stable upgrade today. As far as I can tell it hasn’t actually hit the software upgrade utility like it was supposed to today, but you can always risk the life and limb of your little machine with using the developer version via command line, which is exactly what I did.

    Here’s the info if your are interested, use at the risk of death and destruction. sudo do-release-upgrade -d

    My machine is the 3440 Toshiba Chromebook 2 with 4GB Ram. The new 16.10 is supposed to have options to downgrade the backend graphics systems for the GUI so older machines can run it better and a few other minor improvements.

    I did the install and it did tell me immediately that there were errors. Booting into the system I noticed immediately a massive slowdown and the system started freezing on me and letting me know all the errors that were exploding in my system. I believe this is mainly because of some missing dependencies. I also noticed that the keyboard mapping for the top row was missing, which was a little strange since upgrading shouldn’t change your mapping, but, as it turns out it was not that big of a deal.

    Despite the initial bogging down as the system went through and told me everything that was wrong with me and my life and my desire to have a working Ubuntu Chromebook, I found that after I deleted a few minor programs that weren’t really working in any case, actually only one, it started to get a little better. It was still pretty slow. One of the programs I had to remove was Bing Wallpapers which has never really worked but I hadn’t deleted for some reason.

    At the same time I reran your script for automating the fixes based on the assumption that the upgrade had overwritten these fixes.

    Another oddity was the menus and Unity. The menus were whited out and the scaling on the icons wasn’t working. So what to be done? Restart. After restarting I ran

    sudo apt-get update

    and then

    sudo apt-get upgrade

    All of the sudden there was over 100mb needed in the upgrade. Done and restart.

    Upon restart the keyboard mapping, sound, etc is working correctly, zero error messages, menus are fixed and it’s running smoothly. Zero issues so far.

    So if you if you have an itching to put 16.10 on your Chrombuntu machine have heart, with a little patience and some extremely minor work you can have it up and going no problem.

    I haven’t tested out a lot of the software I’ve installed (see earlier posts) but I did bring up spotify because it seems to be a pretty big resource hog and it works fine. I didn’t really expect anything else, after all this is a stable release and one of the big pushes on it was to make it more friendly for older machines.

    So I’ll update if there are any issues on it.


    • Captain

      Hi Brad,

      That’s brave of you to not only go with a release on the same day but also on unsupported hardware and a upgrade at that!!

      Having dealt with a lot of PC repairs and installs over the years I always prefer doing a clean install whether that’s Windows or Linux.

      As always thanks for the info and updates, appreciate your time.

  34. Alex Jean

    Hi Captain,
    Great guide, I appreciate the effort you put in to get us dual booted linux. However I am having difficulty getting it to work. When I install SeaBIOS, the message ‘Block protection could not be disabled!’ comes up. Everything else works fine though. When I go into SeaBIOS, and select the flash drive with live ubuntu on it, it says “Booting from Hard Disk” and does not load.
    Any Help is much appreciated,
    Thank you!

    • Captain

      Hi Alex,

      It sounds like a write protect issue which Chromebook model do you have and which BIOS mod are you trying to install, RW_LEGACY or BOOT_STUB?

      • Alex Jean

        Hi captain
        I have the Toshiba 2(2015) gandof with a broadwell i3
        I removed the screw, and that fixed the block protection error, however it did not fix the other problem.
        I am installing Legacy.

  35. Riko


    English isn’t my first language, so please excuse any mistakes.

    1. I dont want to open my Chromebook
    2. I have the CB30-B-104 version (Europe)
    3. Is it possible to install Linux on the EMMC instead of the USB drive?

    • Captain

      Hi Riko,

      You English is fine, that’s the same model I have and see this post for installing on the eMMc drive without opening up your Chromebook.

  36. Dmitry

    So, I want to install Elementary OS on my i3 Toshiba. Since it is now based on Ubuntu 16.04, it seems that I wouldn’t be able to do that – I will most likely face the “gfx” problem that other posters have encountered with their i3 and ended up installing Ubuntu 14.04 and then upgrading. But upgrading from older version of eOS to the newer is impossible – that means I couldn’t install Loki, am I right? How is the original Ubuntu performance compared to eOS on CB2? Thank you for useful posts!

    • Captain

      If I’m going to be totally honest, I don’t really like theoriginal Ubuntu. It just feels like it has been headed in the wrong direction for a while now. eOS is alot faster. If you have definately decided to install Linux, try installing eOS with an external monitor plugged in to see if that gets you past the gfx error.

  37. a_nomad

    How do I do this on an SD card?

    • Captain

      I wouldn’t really recommend using a SD card, it’s a bit slow for running an OS but if you really want to, the process is exactly the same as in this post. On the partitioning screen your SD card will show as a mmc card.

      • a_nomad

        can you give an idea of how slow it will be? I would rather not take up one of the USB slots. I will try if not then I’ll go with the usb. thanks

        • Captain

          Even the fast PNY one I recommend will take ages doing system updates and you will notice that some apps take a second or two longer to launch.
          USB 3.0 is the way to go and for dual boot you’ll have to sacrifice one of your ports I’m afraid.

          • a_nomad

            yeah, it is kind of sluggish on sd card only. I think I will return my sd card and get a usb 3.0.

  38. Chris

    I don’t see my chromebook model on John’s web. Does that mean this procedure doesn’t work on mine?
    It’s ASUS C202SA-YS02 Intel Celeron 1.6 GHz.

  39. Fergara

    Toshiba Chromebook 2 (CPU N2840) + Sandisk 1.0 USB + Elementary OS Loki. Sound not working. Have not tested camera and mic. Everything else is working.

    • Captain

      Unfortunately, sound has stopped working in newer version of Linux distros because of the kernel versions 🙁

  40. Will

    Hi Captain,

    This is really awesome. The dual boot works perfectly! But I do have one problem on Ubuntu. It doesn’t see my keyboard. The track pad works OKish. If I plug in a USB keyboard, then there’s no problem. I’m running an Acer Chromebook 14 (CB3-431). I’ve looked around all the forums and tried the few things I found, but they didn’t work. Might you have a suggestion?

    • Captain

      Hi Will,

      Your Chromebook has some known issues like keyboard/mousepad and audio issues. You’re probaly better off using GalliumOS as they have fixed all issues except audio to date. They have a customised download for your model series (Brasswell). You can also view progress of any fixes here.

  41. HankB

    Hi Captain,
    Thank you so much for posting this information. I just set up my Toshiba Chromebook 2 (CB35-B3340 ) for Xubuntu dual boot and for the most part “it just works” and seems to be a fairly competent Linux laptop. There’s still some customization I need (like mapping something to INS and DEL keys) but I see you’ve covered that too!

    It looks like it should be ideal for my use case (light programming during my 3 hour commute by commuter rail.)

    This is so cool!

  42. Stan

    Lenovo N22, Linux Mint LTS 64. Well I had joy up until Linux Mint froze up. My first attempt I had mouse but no keyboard. My second attempt. Still no keyboard AND the Linux Mint locked up with no escape. Tried Ctrl+Alt+D, Ctrl+Alt+Esc – frozen solid. No keyboard-can’t power down. Any ideas?

    • Captain

      Hi Stan,

      With the Lenovo N22 Mint isn’t the problem it’s John’s BIOS mod. The Chromebook is a Intel Braswell CB and you’ll need to use Mr Chromebox‘s BIOS mod instead. The mouse and keyboard will work but sound will not I’m afraid.

      • Stan

        I’ll give it a shot. Thanks for your time and attention.

      • Stan

        Well, I flashed with mrchromebox bios and still no joy with the keyboard. I’m not sure where to go next. Any ideas are appreciated.

        • Captain

          Sounds like the drivers aren’t there in Mint. Try GalliumOS as a test, according to their site everything except sound should work.

          • Stan

            Joy! I’m totally content to use Gallium for now. Since Linux Mint is on all of my other devices I will want to change as time goes forward. I want to express my deep gratitude to you for taking the time and attention. You’re awesome and you do embody UBUNTU and FOSS as a principle.

          • Captain

            Many thanks Stan, really appreciate your comments.

  43. Mike

    Picked up a used Toshiba Chromebook 2 (2014 IPS) a little while back for $150 on Craigslist and was running Xubuntu 14.04 via crouton–my first time using a Linux OS. But after coming across this page and ordering the 128GB Samsung USB 3.0 flash drive you recommended I now have a full installation of Xubuntu 16.04 loaded up and running smoothly on that.

    I also ran the CB Fixes and Tweaks package you have listed here ( http://www.fascinatingcaptain.com/blog/automate-chromebook-fixes-for-linux/ ) and can confirm that most of those fixes worked with Xubuntu 16.04. Will have to check and see exactly which ones didn’t.

    All in all, pretty damn pleased with the whole experience. Thanks for all your hard work, Cap!

    • Captain


      • Mike

        So I’ve checked and all the fixes from that page seem to be working except two. The search key is not toggling CAPS and the the Shift+arrow keys are not working as described. Though it appears Ctrl+up is now “home” and Ctrl+down is “end”, but Ctrl+other arrows does nothing.

        • Captain

          It looks like some distros are implementing the key mappings in different ways! Best advice at the moment is to try experimenting with the settings to try to get them the way you want. You will find this post useful for that.

  44. besonian

    Captain – I’ve just spent three hours following your excellent instructions to install Mint 18 Cinnamon on my Toshiba Swanky Chromebook. All – including wi-fi, sound and key mapping (via your script) – is working perfectly. I’ve been using Mint on my PC now for almost two years so know it well. Great to have it on the Chromebook now as well. Thank you. Brilliant work.

    • Captain

      Hi Besonian,

      You’re most welcome!

      On a side note, I had a quick look at your blog, you are a man of many accomplishments!

  45. Ayman Elsherbini

    I keep getting the “graphic…” error when i try to dual boot it. I tried two different usb drives and still got the error message… what do i do?

  46. JackD

    I’d like to do this on a Asus Chromebook C300MA-DB01.
    Esc + Refresh + Power does not boot into Recovery mode so I can’t get into Developer mode. It simply boots normally, asking for password.
    I’ve tried from a POWER OFF state(which I understand to be the correct way, and a from a power on state, same result.
    I’ve Powerwashed. I’ve changed to both Dev, and Stable channels. no difference.
    I bought it used, and I’ve verified it is not a “managed’ machine.
    Note: “ctrl + alt + shift + r” enters a *different* Recovery Mode with the option to PowerWash only, not the one where you can press ‘Ctrl D’ to get into Developer mode. I’ve already Recovered, Powerwashed, etc. I want DEVELOPER mode.
    I’ve also installed crouton integration and Chromebook recovery Utility, and have tried with each/both, enabled and disabled. I’m Stumped.
    How can I get into Developer Mode?
    Any help is appreciated.

    • Captain

      Hi JackD,

      I can see from a quick Google search there are other people having the same problem so it may just be that this particular model doesn’t support dev mode. The 2 places I usually check are John’s Supported Models Matrix and the GalliumOS Hardware Compatibility list. It’s listed on John’s site (but that’s the Baytrail version and I’m guessing yours is newer). On the GalliumOS site, it’s not even listed.

      My guess is that it’s not supported, you may have more luck posting your question on the GalliumOS site though. Good luck!

      • JackD

        My CPU is a Celeron N2830, which is listed as Bay Trail everywhere I’ve looked.

        • Captain

          In that case I’m stumped as well!

          • JackD

            Oh well. Thanks anyway.. I’m doing as you suggested and checking with the folks at GalliumOS.
            If I get a solution, I’ll let you know.

  47. Chuck Finley

    Hey captain swanky user here i installed 64bit ubuntu on the 4gb ram version of the swanky and everything runs really smooth except for the fact i have no sound? any suggestions?

    • Captain

      Hi Chuck,

      Unfortunately, with the newer versions of the Linux kernel the sound driver for Baytrail sound has been removed, so sound will not work 🙁
      Best advice for now is to stick with an older version of Ubuntu…

  48. andy m

    Any known problems trying to boot elementaryOS on a live USB? Getting to step 4 and choosing the USB with the linux OS on it and keep getting ‘failed to boot’ error.

    I have used rufus, UUI and Unetbootin to create the USB but all give the same failed to boot message.

    The chromebook i have is the pixel 2015.

    • Captain

      Not aware of any problems, maybe try and boot a different laptop from the USB to see if it’s the problem.

      • andy m

        I tried the script from MrChromebox’s site and that worked. I did get the gfxboot error but i found a post on reddit that said to type ‘live’ and that allowed the live linux to boot up.

        Once installed to a USB drive i found elementaryOS would lock up every other boot up so tried Solus instead and that works just fine.

        • Captain

          Thanks Andy for that tip! Solus is a distro that looks like it’s going rise in popularity very quickly.

  49. geert de raeve

    Have Dell Chromebook 11 Candy…
    I used the firmware utility script as found on mrchromebox.tech to install boot_stub firmware (first removed the WP screw).
    that went fine. audio was back!
    but booting from USB as default device did not work.
    then I decide to re-run that script to make sure I did answer ‘y’ to boot from USB but still I had to press ‘esc’ and then select the boot device.
    however this morning, I found myself with a black screen… not even the SEABIOS message appeared.
    I do have power cord connected, I see the USB briefly flashing but nothing on the screen at all.
    I removed Compact USB 3.0 drive used for the Linux installation (SanDisk 128GB Ultra Fit) but still nothing on screen at all…

    • Captain

      Hi Geert, I’m not sure what’s going on but I would suggest asking MrChomebox on his site, he’s usually very helpful and knowledgeable.

  50. Jeremiah g

    Toshiba cb2 “swanky”. When I choose “try Ubuntu” (16.0.4) I get a flashed white screen, followed by a blank, black screen with a yellow bar along the left side. Any thoughts?

    • Captain

      Very strange, not sure what’s going on there. Perhaps try a different USB drive or distro.

  51. Luke Skaff

    Thank you for this article, I struggled with the partitioning of the USB drive for ubuntu install, eventually figured it out but took going into gparted and coping the partition table you have then double clicking on the partitions and assigning them in the installer. It would be helpful to add some more screenshots of this to the article or descriptive language of how to do this.

    • Captain

      Thanks for your feedback Luke, I will be updating and improving my installing Linux on a Chromebook articles this year and I will add more details to the partitioning of the drives as you suggest.

  52. Kenad Araújo

    Hello Captain, my name is Kenad Araújo and I am a Brazilian student of Computer Science, I was very interested in buying a Samsung Chromebook 3 and used it with ONLY a Linux distro. So my question is this, if I just install distro linux and clean ChromeOS completely, would I have a problem if I need to redo the installation later? Thanks in advance, I’m really very satisfied with the work of your site, I hope you understood my question, my English is not very good.

    • Captain

      Hi Kenad, your English is fine, the Samsung Chromebook 3 is supported but there are issues with sound not working. You can follow the info this this post but install Linux on the internal drive instead of a USB drive. I would also recommend using MrChromebox’s BIOS mod.
      If you want to go back to ChromeOS, use the script again to restore the BIOS, similar to my post here.

  53. Nicholas Fendt

    Hi captain, I am trying to do Part 4 of this guide. Every time I do ctrl+L , it goes staight into Ubuntu. The problem is that once I am there, I cannot use my keyboard or mousepad except for the power key. I am using the Samsung Series 3 Chromebook.

    • Captain

      Hi Nicholas, if you used John’s BIOS mod it will probably be old, run the script again and choose the option to revert the BIOS back to stock. Then use Mr Chromebox’s script instead, it’s a very similar process. I will be updating this guide when I can.

  54. Paul Donahue

    Hey Captain. Thanks so much for your videos. As a novice to Linux, you are helping me so much. I want to do the dual boot on my Acer C740. I’ve already upgraded my ram to 120gb so can I skip using the second usb stick and just use the internal drive, and if so, how. Thanks.

    • Captain

      Hi Paul, you are welcome. You should follow this guide carefully but at the disk partitioning stage, choose the option to erase the whole disk and Linux will take care of the partitioning for you. This will mean that Chrome OS gets wiped and on boot you press Ctrl + L to get to Linux.

  55. Linux Fan

    Hi Captain, need a quick pointer. Working on a Samsung Chromebook 3 (celes). I installed RW_Legacy from John’s site. At your ‘step 4’, Ctrl+L works but unfortunately, I didn’t push ESC in time and the screen went blank (but ‘on’ with a soft glow). I have tried every key combination I can think of and can’t get the machine to power down or reboot.

    Any suggestions other than pull the power and wait for the battery to die?

    Sorry for the silly question. I’m new to chrome books.

    • Captain

      Hi there Linux Fan, keep hold of the power button for about 10 seconds or until you see the white light go out. Wait a couple of seconds and it should turn on as normal.
      Once back in I would recommend going into ChromeOS and running John’s script again and restoring the BIOS back to stock.
      Since you have a newer Chromebook, you should use Mr Chromebox’s BIOS mod instead, it’s built on John’s work and has more features.

      • Linux Fan

        Thanks much for the quick reply. Worked great. I had tried that but was impatient and didn’t hold the power long enough. (duh). I’ll do as you suggest and move to the other BIOS. Thanks for the tip.

  56. George B

    Hi Captain,

    I have a Toshiba Chromebook 2 Swanky. Is it possible to boot Chrome OS by default and use CTRL L to boot Elementary OS via RW_Legacy. Sometimes my wife uses my chromebook and forget to type CTRL D for Chrome OS. boot.

  57. bastien

    Hi Captain,

    I went with the toshiba. I’m happy with it, only sad at the pad issue : one side is pushed more further down then the other. Before to run into the process of dual booting I wanted to ask a few question questions to you : I’m affraid to be stuck somewhere as I would like the laptop to be ready for next week end as i move abroad. I really need some step by step instructions and after a few reading I’m still confuse.

    – I’m going to use a 32Gb for drive, since i’ll take with me my external drive for back up. Is that fine right ? it’s not 3.0 but that will be good , no?
    – How could I successfully (and easily) save the firefox bookmark ? I have not succeed in the past.
    At the end of the article you write
    Then more serious questions for me :
    – “DON’T FORGET to change the boot disk to your USB drive as well.” Is it in the partition part ? Where should I do that and how ?
    – What about Mr chromebox ? I’m really lost there. The john’s BIOS mode is simply one command to paste, ..(simple it seems). While I’m lost with Chromebox and what I should do..

    All this RW legacy as nothing to do with chrouton ? As I’m still a novice i’m really searching a simple method to have the 2 system running without nights spent on learning. I have my current xubuntu live usb key ready and another one for the drive.

    Thanks a lot for your help.

    • Captain

      Hello again Bastien, in answer to your questions:

      A 32GB drive is fine but you really should use a USB 3.0 one otherwise you will find your Linux installtion very slow due to slow USB 2.0 read/write speeds.

      Firefox bookmarks, check the link out.

      Read and watch my dual boot guide but with a few changes that will answer your other questions:

      – At step 2 use Mr Chromebox’s mod instead of John’s one. It very similar, all you do is paste one command in your terminal. Use option 1 – Install/Update the RW_LEGACY Firmware.

      – All other steps are the same, for partitioning follow the guide carefully.

      – Step 5 will fix the media keys but NOT the sound.

      Crouton is completely separate to this and you don’t need to use that method.

      I wish you luck and success in your move abroad and I hope all goes well.

  58. bastien

    Hey Captain,
    Here I’m again …
    I have only 2 days left to succeed with dual boot.
    I’m at step 4, when I want to “select boot device” .. I select my usb drive with the liveusb. And I get “this is not a bootable disk. Please insert a bootable floppy and press any key to try again …
    I tried 2 different usb key. If I select the “3” (flash drive 3.0) I get the same message ..
    What’s going on ?
    Once again,
    I went to read the FAQ on google+ coreboot
    I made a xubuntu usb live. Could it be the problem ? I wanted the same system as I run now…

    Now with another usb key I’m getting “No bootable device”. Retrying in 60seconds

    • Captain

      Hi Bastien, I’ve grouped your questions together. All comments suggest that your USB has a problem with it or has not created correctly. Did you use the instructions in http://www.fascinatingcaptain.com/howto/create-a-bootable-live-linux-drive/ ?

      If you cant’t get that to work use https://chrx.org/. Use the step by step section (you should have already completed step 1). From within ChromeOS chrx will download and install xbuntu for you.

      Be default, it will install GalliumOS, for xubuntu you need to add the extra option -d xubuntu and -t /dev/sd??? to point to your USB 3.0 drive. It’s a fairly simple process but you really need to pay careful attention to each step.

      I will be making a video of this in the future as well.

      • bastien

        Hi Captain,

        Thanks for all i’m writing you from Xubuntu on the chromebook ! A friend came with rufus to make the live usb since I couldn’t boot on it ..I didn’t do well, not sure what since I follow instructions, well !

        One thing I’m still searching : how to get off the stand by mode ? Is it possible that the CR2 shut off itself ? (the white down still is bright near power button).. The only thing I can do : shut down (long press) and turn on again :/

        During my 1st install I had to press power to get it back and had to restart install process. I never had this “stand by-shut down” on Chrome OS ..? So I think it’s since the dual boot. Especially that something was running (the installation). Now it still does that and I haven’t found anything unless the process to cancel this stand by mode. Of course it’ s not battery, just me still wondering about this keyboard and some function…

        Once again thanks for all !
        I hope we will be able to get sound on Linux with Toshiba.

  59. Brad Woosley

    Hey Captain,

    Just curious if there is a script for backlit keyboards yet. There is no dedicated buttons on my Dell 13 (My latest install and I love it) it uses the existing screen brightness keys and Function. Any way to map it?

    • Captain

      Hi Brad, lucky you, the Dell 13 looks like a great laptop! Take a look at https://github.com/corcoran/chromebook_keyboard_backlight_driver.
      I don’t know how well this works since I don’t any experience with this.

      • Brad Woosley

        Thanks Captain, when I have some extra time I will compile and add those to my system. I’m loving the dell. I already had a 256mb SSD lying around that I got for my Toshiba before I realized I couldn’t upgrade my model, so I stuck it in there. I used 14.04 and live install last night to get around the gfx error and then upgraded to 16.04 lts. Runs like a champ The touch screen is super smooth too. It’s going to be my daily and I’m going to park my Macbook Pro at home on my desk. I can’t say it’s any cheaper than buying a standard laptop because even on craigslist it cost me $450 but its the perfect form factor. The only thing I’d wish for is that I found a 8gb model. But the 4gb runs amazingly well.

        • Captain

          Thanks mate for the info, the Dell sounds great and in my experience at work over the years when Dell get it right their laptops are quite impressive.

          On price you’re right it is on the high side but from the reviews I’ve read, including yours, the money is well spent.

          Maybe I’ll try to get a review model or a loaner to do one of my reviews…

          • Brad Woosley

            Oh yes, you should, it’s super fast, blows the Toshiba right out of the water.

  60. Terminal Typer

    Is there a way to remove the black screen that https://mrchromebox.tech replaced on boot up?

    • Captain

      Hi TT, run the script again and choose option 7 – Restore ChromeOS Bitmaps.

      • bastien

        Is this the same issue I have ? When on Ubuntu I can’t get back on the session if it is in stand by. On chrome : i just use the touchpad or press some key and it’s fine…

        • Captain

          Bastien, some CBs don’t support standby mode, so you’ll have to get used to using shutdown instead.

          • bastien

            Oh ok… The toshiba CR2 doesn’t ? From Mrchromebox google + : they told me its a kernel problem and that I should switch to galium OS ? What do you think about it ?
            My problem : I don’t have any windows OS to make a usb-live the right way. But I think I could install it from terminal in xubuntu, no ? Of course i’ll search after this but I would like to read what you think about it ..

            One more thing : I got confuse with crouton I think when thinking that I could switch instantly from ChromeOS to Xubuntu with a shortkey ? Only crouton can run both system side by side right ? I was thinking I could listen music from Chrome while being surfing on xubuntu.

            Anyway I got firefox/xubuntu running so i’m saved, but I might switch to gallium. I got a fly tomorrow morning so will be for later ..
            Once again thank you for your answers and your time !

          • Captain

            No probs. The Gallium guys will know best. Crouton is installed inside Chrome OS.

            Well done for persisting, have a nice flight.

      • OS Creator

        Is there a way to remove the John Lewis SeaBIOS on Chrome OS without using Linux.

        • Captain

          Hi, in Chrome OS press ctrl alt T and type shell in the new window. Then just run John’s script again and choose the option to restore back to stock.

  61. Henrique Anton

    I have an Acer 14 Braswell. I ve installed galliumos on 32GB pendrive. Everything is working fine. (keyboard, mouse, audio). The only issue is too slow. Slow to open chromium, gmail, get update, browsing pages…etc..
    The 4GB swap partition is really necessary ? Make any diference on performance ?

    • Captain

      Hi Henrique, I suspect that you’re using a USB 2.0, instead of USB 3.0?

  62. Kerjo Taosa

    Hey, Captain

    I have been trying to install Linux Mint on my Gandof, but once I get to the installation (after partitioning the 64gb SanDisk SD Card I’m using), it stays on “Detecting file systems…” And never makes it to “Copying Files.”
    Any ideas on what the problem might be?

    (I first tried Linux Mint 18.1, 64 bit, but have since moved to 18, 32 bit. Which bit version should I be using?
    I am also in the process of trying Ubuntu 16.04.1 (MATE) 64 bit. Any suggestions on that?)


    • Captain

      Hi Kerjo, SD cards have slow read/write speeds and that is probably causing the problem. Try a USB 3.0 thumb drive.

      • Kerjo Taosa

        I do not think it is a problem with the SD card; however, I might try a USB 3.0 if I can get one.

        In your video at 7:42 (right after you start the install) is when it goes to “Copying files…” and proceeds at a normal rate, mine hangs on “Detecting file systems…” (which appears to happen right before “Copying files…”) for an indefinite amount of time (I have left it running for several hours with no change). Is there any reason it would hang there other than a slow read/write speed to the SD card?

        • Captain

          Try pressing Alt +Tab while it gets stuck and it may show what’s happening in the background.

          • Kerjo Taosa

            Thank you for your help. I basically tried to start it all over, using Mr Chromebox’s code, and I reformatted my live USB back to Linux Mint 18.1, and it worked. I’m not entirely sure what exactly I did differently this time, but I’m happy. As you said, it is a bit slow with the SD card, but until I can get a USB 3.0, it will suffice.

          • Captain

            Cool, good job!

  63. walter

    I followed your directions and installed mint 18.1 cinnamon. Used the added script, keys, mic and sound all worked. I started using machine instead of PC win 10 but noticed wireless problems. Looked to Mint blogs, lots of tweaks but no change. WiFi downloads would start off with a bang, throttle down then pause or halt with “Network Error”. I came on a post and the fix was turn off Bluetooth. I did and I now get consistent downloads of 3 to 7 gB’s/sec, from various Linux distro sites.
    Some fixes recommended were to turn off WiFi power management and others related to Intel firmware. Seem harmless, but no real help. I will see what I can do with the wireless blutooth interference.
    Thanks for your efforts

  64. walter

    I wanted to try gallium 2 but install seemed to be not working. I found a new version, Galliumos 2.1 beta that worked as it should. It was just released. Sound thru speakers same as Mint 18.1 but did not require script to work.
    Chromebook 2 B3340 Gallium 2.1 64 beta1. Installed to a SanDisk usb 3 64GB ultra. May be slightly snappier than Chrome on Mint Cinnamon 18.1…? I will try it, but I think 18.1 Cinnamon is probably a keeper.

  65. Brad Woosley

    Hey Captain,

    Just wanted to update you, I’ve been trying a few different flavors, currently my favorite has to be Galliumos. I’ve installed it on my Dell chromebook 13 and the load time is literally 8 seconds, I actually used a stopwatch it’s only hampered by my having to hit CTRL L and select Ubuntu from the menu. Of course I’m booting from a SSD not a USB 3.0 so that makes a difference and this little Dell is a Chromebook beast, but still. . . 8 seconds. Also Gallium has resolved the keyboard light issue, Right ALT -/= buttons control it without a hitch. Touchscreen still works and I pre-loaded mine with Steam, Kodi, and Minecraft using CHRX.org which installed without a hitch. I’ll have to re-install because I went with the recommended size for the partition thinking it would leave Chrome OS with 16 GB and unfortunately I’m already getting out of space errors. It said 233 GB and I have a 256, so I thought it was accounting for leaving 16GB plus the Chrome install but that turns out not to be true. So on the next install I will go with a 217 GB partition for Galliumos leaving me plenty of space on the Chrome partition to mess around with Android apps once that becomes available on the Dell 13.

    I’m still getting used to Galliumos but it’s really, really fast, blazing on this machine actually. Also I’ve been noticing a lot of errors on Ubuntu 16.04, the other day it updated my dates to 2130 and apparently in 2130 there isn’t any wifi so it turned it off and then refused to connect to any networks, I found out that this is a pretty common error with the suspend function which up to that point I hadn’t had too much of an issue with. Curious to see if Galliumos has resolved this or not.

    Bottom line is it’s a super easy installation, really fast, has some build features you can’t get with Ubuntu, and is easy to work with. We will see about stability. I would use this as a single boot if I didn’t want to mess around with Android apps on this little machine.

    • Captain

      Very cool and thanks for the update.

    • Brad Woosley

      Just a quick update, Galliumos has pretty much resolved the suspend issue or at least it hasn’t popped up in the last week or so that I’ve been using it.

  66. Lafras Wessels

    Acer R11. Aftrr install of mint kde. Once imside keyboard doesn’t work but mouse does. All else fine. Mint installed using external keyboard. Do I need new drivers for chromebook keyboard to work?

    • Captain

      Hi Lafras, you should use Mr Chromebox’s BIOS mod and if you have already try installing GalliumOS to see if the keyboard works.

      • Lafras Wessels

        Thanks Captain. Will try Gallium tonight.

      • Pieter Wessels

        Installed Chromebox and GalliumOS. Gallium has almost no issues, however i am a complete fan of elementaryOS look and feel. I tried to install it, no keyboard support, i suppose it is because of kernel not being latest. Touch also doesn’t not seem to work. Will try and see if i can upgrade the kernel tonight. I got graphics error when i initially started on eleOS install but typed help at terminal and managed to get into setup.

  67. Chromebook H4ck3r

    Hey Cap, do you know what the login name and what the password is?

  68. Chromebook H4ck3r

    It said this for some reason instead of booting up the “Try Ubuntu”

    hal login:

  69. Minty Installer

    I can’t see my USB for some reason. Is there any way to fix it?

  70. Minty Installer

    And where did you get the extra space from?

  71. Lafras Wessels

    Just managed to install Parrot on Cyan and it’s runs beautifully. So far so good 🙂

  72. nurvx23

    I have HP chromebook 11 G5.
    I believe i have done i have done all the steps right. correct me if i am wrong
    1) enabled Developer mode
    2) Installed Seabios from https://mrchromebox.tech/(Selected option 1 for RW_legacy)
    3) Inserted Gallium OS USB stick
    and it i am not ble to get into Bios menu

    I tried enabling boot USB option too. but nothing seems working..

    help would be appreciated..thanks !

    • Captain

      Hi there, Are you pressing Ctrl +L to get to the BIOS? If you get 2 beeps it means you need to follow step 3 in this post.

    • Antonio

      Me too

  73. Nurvx

    Hi captain,I figured it out it was the gallium image fault..Wasn’t written properly onto USB…Working fine now.

    Audio isn’t working any fix for it ??

  74. Scott

    I’m trying to install Ubuntu 16.04 on a Acer Chromebook 14. Everything works until I get to the Ubuntu desktop during install – the keyboard DOES NOT WORK. I can’t connect to the Internet because I can’t type the password. I can’tell type anything. The TouchPad works, but not the keyboard. Please help!!!! Thank you!

  75. Scott Herold

    Is it possible to configure the dual boot so that Linux is installed on an SD card instead of a USB drive? I’d like to end up with the ability to dual boot between Linux and chrome OS AND use my SD card slot instead of one of my USB ports. Would any of the instructions or commands need to change to accommodate that?

  76. Scott Herold

    Ignore my previous comment. I did a word search on this page for SD and have seen previous posts asking the same question. I will use the USB drive for better speeds and automatic booting.

  77. Linux Researcher

    Every time I try to boot from USB, it keeps on saying “Booting from USB Drive”. I tried using another USB but every one of them doesn’t work at all. Please help Cap.

    • Captain

      Hi, try creating your USB using another method. You’ll find those details in my post about creating a USB boot drive.

  78. John McGerty

    I’m sorry if this is a stupid question FasCap, but how do I switch back from Linux to Chrome OS?

  79. Hoff

    I Just bought my Chromebook an hour ago (ASUS C302CA-DHM4) and plan to use this tutorial once I get it. In fact, this is what sold me to buy my first Chromebook. I was contemplating either a Windows 10 Pro laptop or a Ubuntu Laptop, but couldn’t decide which. I really don’t need another Windows machine and I wouldn’t use Ubuntu except for practicing in a mini-lab environment in my job (as a pen tester). The Chromebook was appealing because It’s something I can play on, but I can’t work on. Ubuntu I can work on, but can’t play on. Then comes your tutorial. I was convinced, especially seeing as how you continually provide support as recently as yesterday. Kudos to you. What can I do to support you? Do you have any apps or something that I can look into purchasing?

    And after reviewing the comments: I understand I can partition my 32 GB SDD into two drives and work that way. But I would like to use it all for my chromebook, and install Ubuntu externally on it’s own 32 GB drive. I realize SD cards have slower speeds than USB 3.0. But my Chromebook only has USB-C slots. So this means I will be forced to have a drive that sticks out considerably far from the body in order to boot into Ubuntu. I would much prefer to keep it inside the notebook as concealed as possible. THEREFORE: I must ask if anyone has tried faster SD cards. You can see the speed charts here:


    The most common cards are class 6 (6MBps), so I assume that’s what most have tried. I would think that V30 (30MBps) would provide sufficient read/write speeds for running an Ubuntu OS. Has anyone tried this? Maybe I should just play it safe and get a V60? But those are getting expensive, and I’d hate to buy one just to have it still be slow. I’d rather capitalize on someone else’s mistake before I do it myself 🙂

    And yes, I realize that USB 3.0 is 5Gbps. . . retarded fast!!

    • Captain

      Hi Hoff, that’s a nice Chromebook but it is quite new so all features may not work under Linux. You’ll just have to try and see.

      I’ve been feeling quite unappreciated at work recently so it’s really nice to read your kind words and know I am appreciated elsewhere.
      It’s great of you to offer support and just using my affiliate links when I recommend products is all I ask. You can read about those links in my about page.

      I’m not sure about some of those cards but would recommend the USB-C thumbdrives, you’ll get great speeds and they are quite compact.

      • Scott Herold

        Don’t feel down….your videos and this site has given me a pathway to escape my Windows & Mac OS frustrations! I love learning and you providing the instructions to dual-boot a Chromebook so I can install & learn Linux has been an awesome gift! THANK YOU, THANK YOU! When my USB drive from Amazon arrives on Saturday I’ll be installing Mint XFCE 18.1 on my Acer CB3-131. I can’t wait! You help many people around the world and we appreciate what you do! Keep up the excellent quality site, videos and instructions.

        • Captain

          Hi Scott, Thank you kindly, I really appreciate your encouraging comments! 🙂

          • Scott Herold

            Just wanted to say thanks again for this site and what you do. I installed Mint XFCE 18.1 on my Acer CB3-131-C3SZ using dual boot instructions. I remapped keyboard and got my sound working nicely after finding some instructions from John Lewis’ site. Learned how to configure printer, download iPhone pictures setup dropbox…..who needs an expensive macbook! Just love it. Thanks again and have a great week.

          • Captain

            Cool, good job Scott!

  80. Kim

    I’ve gotten an LG Chromebase (an all-in-one desktop running ChromeOS) through each step 3, but the machine refuses to recognize my (Ubuntu 16.04-based) Peppermint 7 USB as bootable.

    I tried the USB on my MacBook Pro, and it runs fine there, so it seems the USB isn’t my problem. Could the problem relate to how the USB was formatted?

    • Captain

      Hi Kim,

      Make sure the Chromebase is supported and follow the info here.

      • kimtoufectis


        The LG Chromebase is a supported, so I move on to your “follow the info here” advice.

        Since in following the advice in your blog post/video I modified the BIOS of my machine, need I undo any of that before installing the new script? Is it prudent to return the machine to its factory settings before proceeding with these new instructions, and if so how?


        • Captain

          Hi Kim,

          I added an update to this post a while ago recommending to use Mr Chromebox’s BIOS mod instead of John’s. If you have already used John’s, simply run John’s script again and choose the option to restore back to stock. Reboot and then run Mr Chromebox’s mod, apart from which BIOS mod to use, all the other info in this post will be the same. Good Luck Kim.

          (As a note to other readers, John’s script is only intended for Chromebooks and not other Chrome devices. Mr Chromebox has been doing an amazing job of updating and adding new features to his script which is why I now recommend using his BIOS mod instead).

          • kimtoufectis


            I rebooted my ChromeBase, opened a terminal tab, typed shell, and re-ran John’s script as recommended. That got me to a menu with several choices, one of which has the promising “Restore my Chromebook’s BOOT_STUB s;pt back to stock.”

            That starts to run, but after spooling two rows of # symbols across the screen it has the following:

            flashrom v0.9.4 : 5a924b1 : Jan 20 2017 08:05:07 UTC on Liux 3.8.11 (x86.64)
            flashrom v0.9.4 : 5a924b1 : Jan 20 2017 08:05:07 UTC on Liux 3.8.11 (x86.64)
            w25q disable_writeprotect(): error=1

            ERROR: Software write-protect could not be disabled. This usually means hardware
            write-protect is still enabled. Please check, and try again.

            chronos@localhost ~ $

            …so perhaps either (a) this was not the right choice, or (b) I’ve got to do something else to remove write protection, which I don’t recall mention of when I ran the RW_Legacy script the first time.

          • Captain

            The BOOT_STUB area of the BIOS needs to be writable, but since you used the RW_LEGACY option, you don’t need to choose that option.

            You should be able to run Mr Chromebox’s script which will update/install RW_LEGACY.

            I would also recommend contacting Mr Chromebox for any Chromebase specific advice.

  81. samsung

    that’s awesome mate!!! i can’t believe i got it running – couldn’t get lubuntu to run but gallium ran like a dream – thanks so much – i’m really happy!!

  82. Mandy

    Hi Captain! Thanks! I am running Ubuntu 16.10 in my Chromebook Dell 11, is working pretty good but I have no audio.

    • Captain

      Hi Mandy, glad to help. Try GalliumOS instead, sound should work.

  83. kimtoufectis

    Sigh. I restored my LG Chromebase to pristine condition, and repeated the process you set forth using the MrChromeBox script in place of John’s, with matching results: it sees USBs with 64 bit Ubuntu flavors (Peppermint OS 7 Respin and Elementary OS Loki) but fails to boot from them.

    As noted previously my MacBook Pro will boot from them without complaint, so the USBs themselves woudn’t seem the likely culprit. Could making them on another Linux machine (a 32 bit Intel iMac running a 32-bit version of Peppermint 7) be a factor?

    • Captain

      Hi again, some systems can be picky about if they want to boot from a USB drive, for example I have been working on a HP server and the same USB will boot sometimes and not other times. I’ve had to just keep trying different USB ports until it boots. I don’t have any experience with Chromebase devices so I’m not sure if it a hardware or BIOS problem.

      As a workaround you can use chrx. You’ve already done the firmware/BIOS upgrade so all you do is run the relevant command from within ChromeOS (in a terminal window) and chrx will download and install your selected distro for you. Unfortunately, only the following distros are supported:

      galliumos, ubuntu, lubuntu, xubuntu, kubuntu, edubuntu and fedora

      • kimtoufectis


        Another barricade at every turn!

        So I dropped into a shell and ran a df to find my freshly-reformatted 64 GB Samsung USB at /dev/sdb, appending that to the commands at the chrx website to install Ubuntu (-t /dev/sdb). After confirming the legacy boot and finding the target USB, it fails pretty much instantly (see just below for a transcript of the process).

        I formatted the USB on my Chromebase, which offers no formatting options, and ChromeOS recognizes it without complaint.

        I’ve been at this, on and off, for close to 2 weeks. What gives?


        crosh> shell
        chronos@localhost / $ df

        Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
        /dev/root 1249792 1122768 127024 90% /
        devtmpfs 960420 0 960420 0% /dev
        tmp 961432 144 961288 1% /tmp
        run 961432 496 960936 1% /run
        shmfs 961432 10692 950740 2% /dev/shm
        /dev/sda1 11043740 641556 9837860 7% /home
        /dev/sda8 11760 28 11732 1% /usr/share/oem
        /dev/mapper/encstateful 3256968 60908 3196060 2% /var
        media 961432 0 961432 0% /media
        none 961432 0 961432 0% /sys/fs/cgroup
        /home/.shadow/69effd075a04ffd605c9a7e9a47057f8463d259b/vault 11043740 641556 9837860 7% /home/chronos/user
        /dev/sdb 62637088 32 62637056 1% /media/removable/UNTITLED

        chronos@localhost / $ cd ; curl -Os https://chrx.org/go && sh go -d ubuntu -e standard -r 16.04 -H hal -U dave -p admin-misc -t /dev/sdb

        chrx installer, version 2.4.1

        Hardware ID: MONROE_D2B-49K
        Model: LG Chromebase 22CV241
        Released: 2014
        CPU Family: Intel Haswell
        Prognosis: success likely, but unverified

        Checking hardware support for legacy boot… OK
        Installing to target disk /dev/sdb

        WARNING: All data on /dev/sdb will be erased!
        Continue at your own risk!

        Press [enter] to continue or CTRL-C to quit:
        Setting up target disk /dev/sdb…
        Re-reading the partition table failed.: Success
        Disk /dev/sdb: 59.8 GiB, 64156073984 bytes, 125304832 sectors
        Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
        Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
        I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
        Disklabel type: gpt
        Disk identifier: 9F994C43-30E3-4CFF-82A6-2C137B0EFC47

        Device Start End Sectors Size Type
        /dev/sdb1 2048 125304798 125302751 59.8G Linux filesystem

        Installing to /dev/sdb1…
        The file /dev/sdb1 does not exist and no size was specified.
        fatal: return code 1 from command “mkfs.ext4 -q /dev/sdb1”
        chronos@localhost ~ $

        I formatted the USB on my Chromebase, which provided no formatting options. I could also use my MacBook Pro to format it if useful, but then I need advice about what format parameters to choose.

        • Captain

          Hi Kim, not sure if you’ve got any further but your previous comments and the error “The file /dev/sdb1 does not exist and no size was specified.
          fatal: return code 1 from command “mkfs.ext4 -q /dev/sdb1” suggests there’s a problem with the partition table on the USB drive.

          On your mac, open a terminal window and type (replace the X with the letter of your drive)
          (you’ll be completely wiping the drive so make sure to back any stuff up).

          sudo fdisk /dev/sdX

          Here you can format the drive:
          – Type m to see all options available.
          – Type o to create a new partition table.
          – Type n and press enter at the prompts to create a new partition.
          – Type t to see a list of codes for partitions and choose b for fat32.
          – Type w to write the changes.
          – Type q to quit.

          Now follow the previous process using dd to create a bootable Linux drive. If the drive still doesn’t boot, give chrx a last try.

          • kimtoufectis


            Was that “fdsik” intended to be “fdisk”? My mac didn’t recognize it as you record the command.


          • Captain

            My mistake, yes it’s fdisk, I have corrected in the original comment as well.

  84. eddielcruz

    I’ve been able to get my Acer Chromebook R11 to boot Linux Mint off a live USB, but it seems that once it’s in Linux Mint mode I cannot use any of keyboard. Anyone else experience this? Any solutions?

  85. George William Erhart

    I just followed these instructions to install Linux on a Lenovo n42 Chromebook that I picked up on Amazon for cheap. I attempted both Ubuntu 16 LTS (would not boot) and Mint 18 (no keyboard or touchpad). After some additional work, I found GalliumOS that is specifically constructed for running on Chromebooks. It works great and has support for the keyboard, touchpad, wifi, sound, etc. I am using a Samsung 128GB (https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B017DH3O5A) as have experience with the 64GB version for my all-sky camera rigs. It does not seem to have heat issues and gets close to the rated speed for reads. Thanks again for the instructions.

    • Captain

      Hi George, thanks for the feedback and enjoy your new Linuxbook! I will certainly second our recommendation for GalliumOS if you cannot get stuff to work in other distros.

  86. Jashkirat Virdi

    Hey Captain My Hard Disk is Stuck on booting from mass device what to do?

    • Captain

      Hi Jashkirat, what steps have you followed so far?

  87. George Simonis

    I followed the instructions exactly, but cannot get the Chromebook to recognize the Control L command. It only recognizes Control D. Without Control L, how do you install linux? My chromebook is ACER CB3-532, 2GB/16GB. I need your help! Thanks!

    • Captain

      Hi George, did you get this working?

      • George Simonis

        No, Captain, did not. This computer will not recognize Control L, so I powerwashed it again and have put it up for sale on ebay. Here’s another thought,,,Why not get a 2 or 3 year old windows computer with 4GB ram and 250 GB memory? It would have a dvd player, a better keyboard, and more mem and ram. Isn;t it also simpler to install Linux Mint on that type of conmputer? I have spent way too much time trying to get this Acer to work, and ended up with nothing…Chromebooks are fun, but the time it takes to customize them is horrible. With an old windows computer, you stick in the memory stick and install…no hassle! EASY PEASY!!! Your thoughts, please…

        • Captain

          Hi George, I can understand your frustration and modding Chromebooks isn’t for everyone. Just putting Linux on a standard laptop is the easiest way (http://www.fascinatingcaptain.com/reviews/the-acer-one-cloudbook-14-a-super-affordable-linux-laptop/).

          The downside is the bundled cost of paying for a MS Windows license without having the choice to opt out (I call this the Windows tax).

          Let me know if you come across a good one to install Linux on.

          • George Simonis

            Hi, Captain,
            Yes, I’m frustrated, but I was able to set up my Asus Chromebook with Crouton, Chrome, AND USB boot of Linux Mint. I’m upset because the Acer Chromebook won’t accept the same commands. It won’t let me tinker with it! The Acer CB is older, and smaller screen, but it can now run Linux Mint and Linux Lite, as well as any others I wish to put on the thumb drive. I just get upset when my old CB can do, but the new replacement cannot do…I like the ability to use as many Distros as I want. It’s fun to test the latest ones, and see if they run well on CB’s.

  88. Art Kautz

    Is there any way to do the dual boot thing and NOT use something called chronos? I get an error message that indicates the system cannot find the file/program called chronos. It appears the OS expected to find it in the Downloads directory.

  89. bastien

    Hi Captain,

    I had install few months ago but didn’t use much untill the day the chromebook wasn’t in developer mode anymore ?
    I couldn’t use linux …
    I wrote a long message a time ago but couldn’t find it I’m pretty sure it got “lost” or erased somehow, I had bad internet connection where I was..
    i’m back home organizing moving out for good, and I would love this dual set up for on the go, but this time I want to go for Gallium.
    I went with a 64g usb key. I don’t know where the problem came from and i wouldn’t like this to happen again as i have a hard time figuring out what to do : to get back the files, and many others things ..

    If you have any advices or direction for Gallium I’ll be gratefull but also if you could clear some things around my “issue”…
    I have no idea…

    • Captain

      Hi bastien,

      If your battery drained completely, it’s likely that the BIOS reset the BIOS flags so you need to follow step 3 again from this post so that legacy boot is enabled again.

      GalliumOS is a good idea since it has specific support for Chromebooks.

      • bastien

        Thanks so much for reacting as I would like an other option than restart it all… Or maybe it’s better if I want to use Gallium ?
        Cause .. i don’t have exclamation mark .. Do you mean step 2 ?

        • Captain

          basien, can you get into ChromeOS?

          • bastien

            Yes I can
            It seems like I never did anything I have only Chrome OS without developper mode.
            Now I’m afraid that if i have to restart the whole process that I loose some date : on chrome OS and on my usb drive ?

            it’s the second time I answer here but seems like it didn’t post anything ..

          • Captain

            Hi bastien, if I understand correctly:
            You had a dual boot setup with Linux on your USB drive.
            Somehow you lost the ability to boot from your USB and your CB is not in developer mode anymore
            You are worried about losing your data

            1. You don’t need to worry, all your data and your Linux install is still on your USB drive.
            2. You need to log into ChromeOS and backup any files/folders you have in that install.
            3. Follow the Steps 1 and 2 in this post to get USB booting back.
            4. Plug in your USB and try to boot to it, your Linux installation should be just like you left it 🙂

            BTW – Your comments are being posted but they do not appear straight way because they go into to moderation, meaning they are waiting for me to check them…

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